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BUKIDNON INDIGENOUS YOUTH
OF THE SEVEN TRIBES
the home of Seven Tribes,namely
1. Bukidnon, 2. Higanonon, 3. Manobo, 4. Matigsalog,
5. Tala-andig, 6. Tiguahanon, 7. Umayamnon.
The province borders, clockwise starting from the north,
Misamis Oriental, Agusan del Sur, Davao del Norte, Cotabato, Lanao del Sur,
and Lanao del Norte.
Bukidnon is considered by Filipinos to be the food basket of Mindanao.
There are no seaports in the province, although there is an airport
in Malaybalay City. The airport is currently closed. To get to Bukidnon,
one must travel by land from Cagayan de Oro City in Misamis Oriental Province.
Bukidnon became a part of Misamis in the latter part of 1850.
The whole area was then called Malaybalay (few houses) and the people
were known as Bukidnons (mountain people). The Philippine Commission,
then headed by Commissioner Dean C. Worcester, Secretary of Interior,
proposed the separation of Bukidnon from Misamis Province.
On August 20, 1907, the Philippine Commission Act No. 1693 was enacted
the Province of Agusan and sub- province of Bukidnon.
Bukidnon became a regular province on March 10, 1917 by virtue
of the creation of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu under Act 2711.
In 1942, the Japanese troops entered Bukidnon.
In 1945, the province was liberated from Japanese occupation by
Filipino and American troops with the aid of Bukidnon-based Filipino
guerrillas during the Second World War.
According to oral history of the indigenous people of Bukidnon,
there were four main tribes in Central Mindanao: the Maranao who dwell in
Lanao del Sur, and the Maguindanao, Manobo and Talaandig who respectively inhabit the eastern, southern, and north-central portions of the original province of Cotabato. When the civil government divided central Mindanao into provinces
at the turn of the 20th century, the groups included in the province of Bukidnon
are the Talaandig and the Manobo. The Bisayans, Cebuano, Boholanos
and Ilonggos migrated into the province followed by various groups from
Luzon, namely, the Ilocanos, Batangueños, the Igorots and the Ivatans.
All contributed massive acculturation among the indigenous tribes.
Most of those who moved to the mountains and forest continued to hold on their ancestors’ cultural heritage. The wide variety of Filipino groups now thrives in the province and contributed immensely in the socio-economic development.
Bodies of Water
Bukidnon is known as the watershed of Mindanao. It is endowed with six major river systems namely: Pulangi, Tagoloan, Cagayan, Manupali, Muleta, and Bobonawan Rivers. This rivers carved the landscape of the province creating numerous canyons.
The Pulangi River, considered the longest river in the province, is a tributary of the Rio Grande of Mindanao. Its headwaters is found in the mountains of Kalabugao, Impasug-ong, Bukidnon. It is the largest as well as the longest river found in the province. It covers the following cities and municipalities of the province: Impasug-ong, Malaybalay City, Cabanglasan, San Fernando, Valencia City, Maramag, Quezon, Don Carlos, Kitaotao, Dangcagan, Kibawe and Damulog.
The Tagoloan River has its headwaters in the mountains of Can-ayan, Malaybalay City. It traverses the province northwestward passing through Malaybalay City, Impasug-ong, Sumilao, Manolo Fortich, Malitbog and finally empties into the sea at Tagoloan, Misamis Oriental.
The Cagayan River watershed is found mostly in the municipality of Talakag. Its headwaters is found in the Kitanglad Mountain Range in central Bukidnon. The river flows northward through the municipalities of Talakag and Baungon. Its mouth lies at Cagayan de Oro City in Misamis Oriental, where it is the main source of potable water.
The Manupali River, a major tributary of the Pulangi River, start in the mountains of Lantapan, Bukidnon, picking up tributaries along the way from the Kalatungan and Kitanglad Mountain Ranges. It forms part of the natural boundary of the Valencia City and Lantapan. It flows eastward towards Malaybalay City, eventually joining the Pulangi River in Valencia City.
The Muleta River is found in the southern portion of the province covering the municipalities of Pangantucan, Don Carlos, Kitaotao, Dangcagan, Kibawe, Kadingilan and Damulog. It is another important tributary of the Pulangi River and flows southward. It will join the Pulangi River in the boundary of Bukidnon and Cotabato province.
The Bobonawan River, found in the municipality of Cabanglasan, is another tributary of the Pulangi River. It covers most of the parts of the municipality, flowing southward towards Pulangi River.
Aside from the relatively important river systems, various lakes also dot the landscape of the province. Pinamaloy Lake, in Don Carlos, Bukidnon, is the biggest in the province covering about 50 hectares . It was named after Barangay Pinamaloy, the place where the lake is located. Another lake is found in Pigtauranan, Pangantucan called the Napalit Lake. The lake covers an area of 36 hectares and is one of the tourist spots in Pangantucan, Bukidnon. There are 24 floating islets in the lake. The third significant inland body of water in the province is Apo Lake at Guinoyoran, Valencia City. It occupies an approximate area of 25 hectares. A man-made lake called Maramag Basin is found in Maramag, Bukidnon, which was the result of the construction of the Pulangi IV Hydroelectric Dam of the National Power Corporation (NPC) in the course of the Pulangi River.
By Congressional Districts, District II has the highest population among the three capturing almost 40% of the total population of the province. District II includes the cities of Malaybalay and Valencia. It is closely followed by District III with almost 33% of the total population. District I, although closer to the regional urban center of Cagayan de Oro City, has the least population with 28%.
Valencia City has the highest population among the cities/municipalities of the province with 147, 924 inhabitants, accounting 13.96% of the province’s total. It is closely followed by Malaybalay City with 123, 672 inhabitants or 11.67% of the total. Quezon is at third with 82, 567 inhabitants or 7.79% of the total. Maramag and Manolo Fortich is 4th and 5th with 74, 757 and 74, 252 inhabitants, respectively.
According to ethnicity, majority of the people in Bukidnon are Cebuano accounting approximately 58% of the total population. The Bukidnon lumads (Bukidnon, Higaonon, Manobo, Talaandig, Tigwahanon,Matigsalog and Umayamnon.) account about 14% of the total population of the province. The Hiligaynon/Ilonggo and Boholano groups follow with 8.83% and 7.37%, respectively, of the province’s total population.
The major language spoken in the province is Cebuano, used by 77.92% of the total households in the province. It is followed by Binukid (Bukidnon) with 8.86%, and Hiligaynon/Ilonggo with 8.17%. Ilocano, Tagalog, Maranao, Waray, Ivatan, Tausug and Pampango are also spoken but at low percentage.
11 Universities and Colleges of Bukidnon
The following Universities and Colleges of Bukidnon are the tertiary schools in Bukidnon.
People and Culture
The traditional culture of Bukidnon is a pride to all. The cultures and traditions are embodied in oral folk literature of the province which are classified into; “Antoka”“Basahan” (proverbs or wise sayings), “Kaliga” (ceremonial songs), “Limbay”“Sala” (love song), “Idangdang” (ballad), “Ulaging” (epic) and “Nanangon”God. “Magbabaya” (the ruler of all) has minor gods and goddesses under his command (Example: “Bulalakaw” watches rivers and lakes, “Tumpas Nanapiyaw” or “Itumbangol” watches the bases of the earth night and day lost in crumbles). (riddles), (lyric poem), (folktales). Religion is monotheistic. They believe in one
The Bukidnons have different degrees of acculturation. The first-degree Bukidnons are those leading the most traditional life style. This includes those who lived remote from any center of lowland habitation, deep in the forest and along the watershed of the main rivers. The second-degree Bukidnons lived near the fringes and directly within the bounds of the lowlanders. The third-degree Bukidnons are highly assimilated and are generally able to send their children off to school. The fourth degree Bukidnons have fully assimilated the ways of urban living and hardly acknowledge the old ways of their background. The fifth degree Bukidnons are largely recent immigrants from their other parts of the Philippine archipelago and have made Bukidnon as their permanent home.
The province celebrated the Kaamulan Festival, an ethnic cultural festival held annually in Malaybalay City, Bukidnon from the mid-February up to March 10, the founding date of the Bukidnon as a province in 1917. It is held to celebrate the culture and tradition of the seven ethnic tribal groups—Bukidnon, Higaonon, Talaandig, Manobo, Matigsalug, Tigwahanon and Umayamnon—that originally inhabit the province. Kaamulan comes from the Binukid word “amul” meaning to gather. Kaamulan is gathering for a purpose—a datuship ritual, a wedding ceremony, a thanksgiving festival during harvest time, a peace pact, or all of these together. The festival started in 1974 and is celebrated until now.
Bukidnon has already assumed its role as producer and supplier of fresh fruits and vegetables. These produce are either sold in domestic markets or exported to Japan and other neighboring countries. Fresh pineapples, banana, sugarcane and cutflower grown over the years are among its exports. New agri-business industries are still growing. Even export of rubber boots and shoes, an infant industry in the province is increasing tremendously.
Wide variety of resource-based handicrafts are extensively produced from rattan, bamboo and wood. San Fernando is known for its rattan furniture. Bamboo baskets, wood wares and carvings, mats and other handmade products are ideal souvenir items.
Bukidnon My Home, The Provincial Hymm